What are the Main Points of Yogacara Doctrine?

发布日期:2017-11-29   字体大小:   


Yogacara doctrines have a very comprehensive content, encompassing a wide range of spheres. Here I shall only say a little about its cosmology. On this question, Yogacara School built up and developed the Theory of the Reality of All Dhammas. It holds the view that the reality of dhammas has two sides: on the one hand, self-nature can’t be said to exist. Yet on the other hand, all is not nothingness. Only with such a conception can one realize a detachment from existence and non-existence, and arrive at the Middle Path. Yogacara maintains that the nature of all dhammas falls into three levels: that all dhammas arise from causes and conditions is the Paratantra-svabhava (the nature of being dependent in origin); that ordinary beings attribute to the dhammas produced by cause and conditions all kinds of illusory imaginations and judgments (false imaginations in their minds which do not correspond to reality) , is the Parikalpita-svabhava (the nature of regarding the seeming as real); that the completely true nature, or tathata (the absolute reality) can be attained by eliminating the illusory inventions is the Parinispanna-svabhava(the absolutely true nature). The above three can be illustrated with a metaphor: Parikalpita is like one walking at night and mistaking a rope by the road for a snake. There seems to be a snake but actually there is not. Paratantra is like the rope with its substance arising from causes and conditions, which is only the hypothetical existence. The perfectly true reality resembles the jute, the substance of the rope, which is real in an ultimate sense. Further observation through the three natures shows that there are another three natures presenting non-exitence (Trividha-nihsvabhavata): 1.The parikalpita inventions are not real. This is the nature of non-existence in form; 2. The worldly things that ordinary beings take to exist are just produced by causes and conditions. This is the nature of non-origination; 3. The reality of all dhammas is empty and unattainable. This is the nature of emptiness in the highest sense. (From Essentials of Buddhism: Questions and Answers)